Durango Bill’s
Debunking the Deniers of Global Warming

Global Warming Denial
Liars



Is Global Warming a Hoax/Fraud/Scam?

Global Warming Deniers claim that Global Warming is a hoax/fraud/scam.
They lie, they are willfully ignorant, and they are wrong.



“Global warming is unequivocal and primarily human-induced.”
http://www.globalchange.gov/publications/reports/scientific-assessments/us-impacts/key-findings

Ideologically-driven climate change deniers are impervious to facts and reason. They will not abandon their political tribalism no matter how much evidence is presented.

Typical traits of Global Warming Deniers include willful ignorance and a belief that this ignorance is a virtue.

Science is hard, so it must be wrong

Isaac Asimov - There is a cult of ignorance in the United States, and there always has been. The strain of anti-intellectualism has been a constant thread winding its way through our political and cultural life, nurtured by the false notion that democracy means that "my ignorance is just as good as your knowledge."
http://rationalwiki.org/wiki/Isaac_Asimov

Prince Charles – The “Brits” sometimes have a way of explicitly describing the situation along with what should be done about it. According to Prince Charles, the proper treatment for Global Warming Denier is “to ignore the headless chicken brigade and do something practical to help.”
http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/jan/31/climate-change-sceptics-headless-chickens-prince-charles


Willful ignorance - http://rationalwiki.org/wiki/Willful_ignorance
“The practice can entail completely disregarding established facts, evidence and/or reasonable opinions if they fail to meet one’s expectations. Often excuses will be made, stating that the source is unreliable, that the experiment was flawed or the opinion is too biased.”


   The right-wing nuts and their followers (ignorant political-tribe groupies) would have you believe that “Global Warming”/“Climate Change” is a hoax/fraud/scam. The evidence, particularly as shown by repeat photography of glaciers, shows that Global Warming/Climate Change is real and is continuing. However, “Global Warming Deniers” persist in their ignorant claims that Global Warming is a hoax/fraud/scam.

A poster child for the “Global Warming Deniers”. Glenn Beck does not any background in climate sciense.

The original picture above is from http://earthfirst.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/glenn-beck-global-warming.jpg




Global Warming Deniers can't hear facts, can't see facts, and speak no facts

   Global Warming Deniers misrepresent the scientific facts of Global Warming / Climate Change in multiple ways. The misrepresentations can take the form of paid political propaganda, ignorance, outright lies, etc. The people responsible for these misrepresentations can vary from “think tanks” and lobbyists that are financed by large corporations down to ignorant individuals.

Politically motivated global warming denial is a great time saver. It enables one to form opinions without bothering to get the facts.

   There seems to be a paranoia among the “Global Warming Deniers”. As a group, the deniers tend to exhibit a fear that various conspiracies/conspirators are out “to get them”. For example, if you run a Google search using << “Global Warming Deniers” paranoia >> you will get millions of hits.

   The same result shows up for prominent people within the Global Warming Denier movement. For example, try running a Google search using << Monckton “world government” >> (alternately << Monckton “big government” >> ) and see what happens.

Rush Limbaugh Idiot   There is also an element of ignorance in people who deny global warming. They don’t understand the science of climatology, and don’t care that they don’t understand the science. In many cases, they consider anti-intellectualism and their personal ignorance to be a virtue.

   Then political tribalism takes over. Since the science disagrees with the preconceived political tribalism of Global Warming Deniers, the GWDs are convinced that the “scientists must be wrong” and are part of a conspiracy.

   Rush Limbaugh (college flunk out – “he flunked everything” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rush_Limbaugh ) is a classic example of this ignorant (and arrogant) political tribalism. Rush has become an icon for other ignorant Global Warming Deniers. (To be filed under “Misery loves company”)  Please see “Rush Limbaugh: Climate Change Misinformer of the Year” http://mediamatters.org/research/201112190006?frontpage

“We have no intention of prosecuting Rush Limbaugh because lying through your teeth and being stupid isn't a crime.”  http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Rush_Limbaugh

    Also, the ignorant voice of political tribalism is frequently obsessed by hatred. For example:
Limbaugh: “I hope Obama fails” Jan. 16, 2009
http://www.rushlimbaugh.com/daily/2009/01/16/limbaugh_i_hope_obama_fails


The book “Rush Limbaugh is a Big Fat Idiot” by Al Franken is available at:
http://www.amazon.com/Rush-Limbaugh-Big-Fat-Idiot/dp/0440508649
And as observed in chapter 22 – “Rush Limbaugh Is a Big Fat Liar”.



Anti-science pro-ignorance Rush Limbaugh.


  Rush Limbaugh is perhaps the “biggest” advocate of the pro-ignorance anti-science attitude that pervades large segments of the U. S. population. The following quote is from one of Rush Limbaugh’s radio broadcasts.
(Transcript at
http://www.rushlimbaugh.com/daily/2009/11/24/climategate_hoax_the_universe_of_lies_versus_the_universe_of_reality
video excerpt and picture from
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/46979738/ns/msnbc-up_with_chris_hayes/#47841375 )

So we have now the Four Corners of Deceit, and the two universes in which we live. The Universe of Lies, the Universe of Reality, and The Four Corners of Deceit: Government, academia, science, and media. Those institutions are now corrupt and exist by virtue of deceit. That's how they promulgate themselves; it is how they prosper.

Note that “academia” would include: Harvard, Princeton, Yale, Columbia University, U. of Chicago, MIT, Caltech, Stanford, etc.
http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-colleges/rankings/national-universities

   Also, please see “Rush Limbaugh, chairman of the modern day anti-science Know Nothing party” at http://littlegreenfootballs.com/article/37294_Rush_Limbaugh_Creationist (And Rush has confirmed that he is an ignorant creationist.)


   For a critique of Martin Durkin’s movie “The Great Global Warming Swindle”, please see http://www.durangobill.com/Swindle_Swindle.html. The web page also has multiple photographs of what has happened to glaciers over the last 50 to 100 years.




   This web page and its linked pages will provide some information about some of the people and organizations that misrepresent climate science - either from ignorance or willful lying - and sometimes, both.


Christopher Monckton - A vociferous Global Warming Denier Liar
http://www.durangobill.com/GwdLiars/GwdLiarsChristopherMonckton.html
Christopher Monckton has been one of the more vociferous noisemakers among the “Global Warming Deniers”. As is typical of Global Warming Deniers, Christopher Monckton is an expert at making noise, but is scientifically impaired when it comes to portraying reality. (Great qualifications if you want to be a politician or circus side show barker.)


   The “Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine” (OISM) advertises itself as “a non-profit research institute”. Global Warming Deniers frequently promote the “Oregon Petition” which is one of the OISM’s products. In reality, the Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine is a farm in very rural Oregon some 6 linear miles southeast of Cave Junction, Oregon. (Population ~1,425  http://www.city-data.com/city/Cave-Junction-Oregon.html) Its founder/owner, Arthur B Robinson, promotes the “Robinson Curriculum” - a “Jesus-Plus-Nothing-Else” home-school system. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/RobinsonUsers4Christ/ .


   New Zealand’s Franz Josef Glacier is a good case study of the ongoing retreat of world glaciers as opposed to the claims of the Global Warming Deniers. It has retreated a full mile since the 1920s, but you would never know it if you read the Ice Age Now’s list of “Growing Glaciers”.
Please see: http://www.durangobill.com/GwdLiars/GwdLiarsFranzJosefGlacier.html


   One of the false claims that Global Warming Deniers have been making in recent years is that “Global Warming Stopped in 1998”. As per usual, this claim is another deliberate GWD falsehood that can be easily debunked by looking at the actual observations.
The “Global Warming Stopped in 1998” Lie
http://www.durangobill.com/GwdLiars/GwdGlobalWarmingStoppedIn1998.html



   The “Science and Public Policy Institute” sounds very impressive. In practice it is a one-man (see http://scienceandpublicpolicy.org/contact.html ) lobbying outfit (Republican Party) run by Robert Ferguson, whose climatology knowledge consists of “26 years of Capitol Hill experience”.

   There are two good sources for additional information about the “Science and Public Policy Institute” (SPPI). Both are recommended.
1) http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Science_and_Public_Policy_Institute
2) http://www.desmogblog.com/directory/vocabulary/2139


Roger Cohen’s proposed $5,000 bet
A (retired) Exxon Mobil executive’s attempt to use money to promote his personal agenda. (Which is to deny “Global Warming”.)


   “Steve J”  Steve is a typical example of the ignorant political groupies (as in “tribes”) who incessantly repeat the Global Warming Denier propaganda. Steve posts messages to Internet boards, but is embarrassed about revealing his full name. Based on his disdain for top quality educational institutions and his complete ignorance of observed data, it appears that Steve has a poor educational background.



Our Scientifically Ignorant Politicians

The Climate Zombie Caucus Of The 112th Congress
by Brad Johnson
ThinkProgress Wonk Room Climate Editor

Republican Science

“In January, 2011, the 112th Congress will open session, with a huge contingent of Republicans who have explicitly rejected the threat of manmade global warming pollution. These climate zombies express the classic variants of global warming denial: that it is not warming, that cold weather refutes concerns about global warming, that man’s influence is unclear, that climate scientists are engaged in a hoax, scam, or corrupt conspiracy, and that limiting greenhouse pollution would have no impact on global temperatures. Of special note are the conspiracy theorists who argue that hacked emails from climate scientists prove corruption, calling for kangaroo trials against practicing researchers.”

http://wonkroom.thinkprogress.org/2010/11/19/climate-zombie-caucus/


A typical GWD lie by Republican VP candidate Paul Ryan

The PrintScreen image above is from Republican Paul Ryan’s Internet page at:
http://paulryan.house.gov/news/documentsingle.aspx?DocumentID=193671

GOP V. P. candidate Paul Ryan accuses climatologists of a “perversion of the scientific method, where data were manipulated to support a predetermined conclusion,” in order to “intentionally mislead the public on the issue of climate change.”

The accusations are not true which makes Paul Ryan a LIAR.
(From “The Independent Climate Change E-mails Review” http://www.scribd.com/doc/34003747/Muir-Russell-Final
“On the specific allegations made against the behaviour of CRU scientists, we find that their rigour and honesty as scientists are not in doubt.”)
Also: http://www.factcheck.org/2009/12/climategate/


Anti-science repubuplican global warming deniers

   If someone denies Anthropogenic Global Warming, it is a pretty good bet that the individual involved is a scientifically ignorant Republican. Additionally, it is most likely that that person is a member of the Tea Party Cult. (AGW – Global Warming caused by human activities.)

“It is very difficult to get a man to understand something when his tribal identity depends on his not understanding it.”
Michael Bérubé, a literature professor at Pennsylvania State University



A text book for Global Warming Deniers





The Scientific Presentation of Evidence vs. the “Wing-Nut” Approach

   The scientific approach to any subject is to check the evidence. For climatology this would include temperature observations, studies using then vs. now photographs of glaciers, laboratory measurements of the physical properties of carbon dioxide, etc.


The Heartland Institute is perhaps the perfect “Poster Child” for the scientifically ignorant,
“Wing-Nut” approach.

Heartland Intitute's billboard

Picture at: http://www.durangobill.com/GwdLiars/GwdHeartlandHatred.jpg
Original article at The Guardian: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/blog/2012/may/04/heartland-institute-global-warming-murder?newsfeed=true

   The picture above shows a billboard advertisement paid for by the Heartland Institute. The Heartland Institute has a long history of being a sponsor of, and a payment distributor for Global Warming Deniers. If we follow the Heartland Institute’s “logic”, should we condemn mathematics just because Kaczynski might believe 2 + 2 = 4? (Kaczynski has a legitimate PhD in mathematics from the University of Michigan. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ted_Kaczynski )

Alternately - as shown at http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/05/04/heartland-climate-change-billboard_n_1478011.html?ncid=edlinkusaolp00000003

"I still believe in Great Hair. Do you?


   As for the claim that Kaczynski endorses global warming, the words/phrases “global warming”, “climate change”, “carbon”, “carbon dioxide” do not appear in Kaczynski’s 34,000-word manifesto. http://cyber.eserver.org/unabom.txt

   The arguments presented by Global Warming Deniers are designed to appeal to human emotions – especially willful ignorance, fear, paranoia, hatred, etc. The description that the Heartland Institute uses for their billboard is:

    “most prominent advocates of global warming aren’t scientists. They are murderers, tyrants, and madmen.”


The "environment" at the Heartland Institute is preoccupied with "murderers, tyrants, and madmen".

Picture at: http://www.durangobill.com/GwdLiars/GwdHeartlandMadmen.jpg


Suppose we ask the question:
Which people are more likely to be aware of the real world 1) or 2)?

1)  People who measure real world events
2)  People who are preoccupied with “murderers, tyrants, and madmen”

Climate Reality Billboard


As to why the Heartland Institute would try a “madman billboard” campaign, the “Marble” episode in “The Caine Mutiny” comes to mind.
http://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/lose-your-marbles.html
“Caine Mutiny - Capt. Queeg Loses It”  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZlV3oQ3pLA0


Heartland’s Executive Editor Joseph Bast has a long standing hatred toward Al Gore

   It seems that Heartland’s Executive Editor/President Joseph Bast has a long standing hatred toward Al Gore and equates Gore with Kaczynski. Bast appears to think that there is little difference between criticism of his own (Bast’s) position vs. murders committed by a “madman”. Picture is from a 2006 Joseph Bast article.
http://heartland.org/policy-documents/july-2006-inconvenient-truth-about-al-gore

   Heartland’s billboard episode was a classic “poster child” for the Global Warming Denier movement as it illustrated the motivation of Global Warming Deniers. GWDs arrantly and pretentiously assert that their scientific ignorance is a virtue (science and education are the enemy), and the only thing that is relevant is politically/emotionally based hatred.

   For more information about the lies promoted by the Heartland Institute, please see:
“5 Lies from the Heartland Institute”
http://polluterwatch.org/blog/dear-greenpeace-5-lies-heartland-institute
or just run a Google search using:
“Heartland Institute” liars




MIT’s Richard Lindzen:  Global Warming Deniers are “Nutty”

   Global Warming Deniers are always looking for a legitimate scientist to support their denial claims. They have always used (and frequently misquote) MIT’s Richard Lindzen as their “Legitimate Scientist”. Professor Lindzen has always claimed that “clouds will save us”. (This may or may not prove to be the case, but most experts think that changes in cloud cover will be minimal.)

In any case here’s what Professor Lindzen has to say about the deniers – as per an interview printed in the New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/01/science/earth/clouds-effect-on-climate-change-is-last-bastion-for-dissenters.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

Dr. Lindzen accepts the elementary tenets of climate science. He agrees that carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, calling people who dispute that point “nutty.” He agrees that the level of it is rising because of human activity and that this should warm the climate.

   Even Patrick Michaels (one of the heroes of the Global Warming Denier cult) says that “Global Warming is real”. “People have something to do with it… get over it.” The quotes are from Patrick’s 2008 keynote presentation to a conference sponsored by the Heartland Institute.  (7:17 into the video at http://www.desmogblog.com/climate-denial-crock-week1998-revisited )



Judith Curry: School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences - Georgia Tech

   Global Warming Deniers frequently misquote scientists to make it seem like the scientist involved is arguing against Human Caused Global Warming. One of these scientists is Judith Curry – chair of the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Here is Judith Curry’s actual position.

“The earth is getting warmer, and scientists conducting research on global climate change overwhelmingly agree: most of the warming since the mid 20th century has been caused by humans, primarily through burning fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum. Climate model projections suggest that average global temperatures could increase from 3 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit by 2100, the range reflecting the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that might actually be put into the air, plus uncertainties in the climate models. Georgia can expect warmer temperatures to be accompanied by more severe heat waves, increased heavy rainfall events, and more severe and longer droughts.”

http://curry.eas.gatech.edu/climate/pdf/atlanta_rev.pdf


Roy Spencer: Principal Research Scientist at the University of Alabama in Huntsville

   Roy Spencer is convinced that all the peer reviewed papers that provide evidence that the earth is warming are wrong and that their authors are “Global Warming Nazis”. On the other hand, Roy appears to have descended into religious senility. (See “The Evolution Crisis” http://theevolutioncrisis.org.uk/testimony2.php where he confirms that he is also an “Evolution Denier”. Spencer: “I finally became convinced that the theory of creation actually had a much better scientific basis than the theory of evolution.”)

As for Roy’s wrong positions in regard to global warming, please see:

“Bad Week for Roy “Wrong-Way” Spencer”
http://climatecrocks.com/2011/09/07/bad-week-for-roy-wrong-way-spencer/
“Roy Spencer is MOST famous for being wrong”

http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/Roy_Spencer
“[This] paper is not really intended for other scientists, since they do not take Roy Spencer seriously anymore (he’s been wrong too many times).”

http://www.desmogblog.com/roy-spencer
Spencer: “Carbon dioxide is a relatively small part of the Earth's natural greenhouse effect”

“Dr” Roy Spencer is sad and lonely and wrong
http://scienceblogs.com/stoat/2011/03/05/dr-roy-spencer-is-sad-and-lone/

Roy Spencer's Catholic Online Climate Myths
http://www.skepticalscience.com/roy-spencer-catholic-online-interview.html




Why Global Warming Deniers Reject Reality


    There is a reason why Global Warming Deniers (and other anti-science groups) will continue to deny reality. Global Warming Deniers live in an “alternate world” where conspiracy theories and their own paranoia control their thought processes. Global Warming Deniers truly believe that science and scientists are the enemy, and that these scientists are part of a conspiracy that is out to get them.

   This “science and scientists are the enemy” anti-intellectual mindset by Global Warming Deniers MUST!!!  be understood if you are going to understand why GWDs behave the way they do.


Global Warming Deniers reject reality.

 The following two examples demonstrate this “scientists are the enemy” paranoia.

1) The movie (pseudo-documentary) “The Great Global Warming Swindle” was produced by Martin Durkin. There are 6,000 links on the Internet that will attest that Martin Durkin said:
“Legitimate scientists - people with qualifications - are the bad guys.”
(Run a Google search using the above quote.)
(Original source may have been:
http://web.archive.org/web/20070306065135/http://www.lse.co.uk/ShowStory.asp?story=CZ434669U&news_headline=global_warming_is_lies_claims_documentary )

2)  In his efforts to promote creationism instead of science, Don McLeroy (former chairman of the Texas State Board of Education http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Don_McLeroy ) said:
"Someone has to stand up to experts!"
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pzrUt9CHtpY

   Thanks to Hollywood and political tribalism, Global Warming Deniers (and other scientifically ignorant groups) are convinced that the purpose of science is limited to creating Frankenstein monsters and/or inventing death rays and/or fabricating “weapons of mass destruction” and/or manipulating temperature data to support a predetermined conclusion. Thus, instead of looking to science for answers, these people would rather “trust” psychics, UFO sightings, homeopathic medicine (i. e. witch doctors), “reality TV”, newspaper tabloids, myths spread via the Internet/emails, etc. as their “sources for information”.

   Human beings are social animals. We tend to identify ourselves with particular social groups. Global Warming Deniers belong to anti-science social groups. Their sense of belonging in their groups requires that they conform to the beliefs of their social group. Membership in their own group requires that they continue a willful ignorance of anything that might cause them to be expelled from their group.

   For this reason, the vast majority of anti-science GWDs will never acknowledge that science represents reality. In practice, this anti-science attitude produces the “closed mind” attribute that we observe in GWDs.




The “Alternate Reality” of Global Warming Deniers


The "Alternate Reality" of Global Warming Deniers

Cartoon originally at http://blog.chron.com/nickanderson/2012/10/space-cadets/

   Global Warming Deniers live in an “alternate world” where “reality” consists of their “make-believe” fantasies while real observations are dismissed as fabrications of the conspirators. A blogging column by Alan Caruba that was posted in the online “Canada Free Press” on Oct. 10, 2012 is a typical example. http://www.canadafreepress.com/index.php/article/50178

 The title of the article was:

“Add ocean acidification and falsely asserted rapid rise of sea levels to the list of things the IPCC, the USGS, and NOAA, among others, are lying about
 
The Oceans Are Neither Rising, Nor Turning to Acid”

   This was followed by the usual paranoid GWD rant that the United States Geological Survey was wasting taxpayer money by studying acidification of the Arctic Ocean. (USGS article at http://www.usgs.gov/newsroom/article.asp?ID=3363&from=rss_home )

I added a comment that referred readers to:
1) A world map that showed rising sea level as measured by tide gauges
     http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/sltrends/sltrends.shtml
2) A graph that showed rising sea level as measured by NASA’s satellite altimetry
    http://ibis.grdl.noaa.gov/SAT/SeaLevelRise/LSA_SLR_timeseries_global.php
3) An article by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution on ocean acidification
    http://www.whoi.edu/main/topic/ocean-acidification
4) An article by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography on ocean acidification
    http://sio.ucsd.edu/Ocean_Acidification/

Alan’s reply was:

Alan Caruba's "corrupting of science" assertion.

   Alan Caruba apparently does not know that the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution are two of the top oceanographic educational research institutions in the world. Alan apparently doesn’t care that he doesn’t know. Alan apparently has no interest in learning about educational institutions. The only thing that matters to Alan is that any fact/observation/research study that disagrees with the political tribalism of the GWDs must be contributing to “corrupting the science”. His disdain for educational institutions is typical of Global Warming Deniers. (Alan Caruba doesn’t post his educational background (scientific or other) in his online bio.)

   It would appear that according to Alan (and other GWDs), that an organization is part of “the conspiracy” if it doesn’t agree with the fantasy world of the GWDs. According to the GWDs, the only “facts” that exist are the fabricated delusions of the GWDs.

   And finally, in Nov. 2005, in an article titled “It's Getting Colder, Not Warmer”, Alan Caruba said “we are due another ice age any day now.” http://www.canadafreepress.com/2005/caruba111005.htm
2005 turned out to be to be the warmest year in recorded history. . .
Until that record was broken in 2010, http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/graphs_v3/
With a record low Arctic ice pack in 2007. . .
Followed by a new record low in 2012, http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews/2012/09/arctic-sea-ice-extent-settles-at-record-seasonal-minimum/
Etc.
Let’s see. . . How many days are in “due another ice age any day now”?

Also please see: http://www.prwatch.org/prwissues/2006Q/alcaruba.html
http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Alan_Caruba
“FACTSHEET: Alan Caruba” http://www.exxonsecrets.org/html/personfactsheet.php?id=1042






Is Global Warming / Climate Change Real?

A quick look at what has happened to glaciers tells the story.

A 1941 view of the Muir Glacier in Glacier Bay National Park.A 2004 view of the former location of Muir Glacier.

The original photographs and story can be seen at: http://www.gi.alaska.edu/ScienceForum/ASF17/1731.html

   The (historic) Muir Glacier is an extreme example, but there are many other examples. (If you have Google Earth on your computer, go to 59.012N, 136.163W and look slightly west of due north to generate a view similar to the views above.)


"Then and now" pictures of the famous Matterhorn.

The picture pair above is courtesy of http://www.gletscherarchiv.de/en/fotovergleiche/gletscher_liste

Do you recognize the impressive mountain in the background? Hint: It’s near Zermatt. Switzerland.

   The left picture is a copy of an old post card. The Furgg Glacier can be seen snaking around the front of the tall pyramidal mountain. Also, part of the glacier covers the lower slopes of the tall mountain.

   By 2003 there isn’t much left of the glacier. The very dark area below and slightly to the right of the mountain is the shadow from a 500-foot high cliff below a ridge. One hundred years ago, the glacier was thick enough to completely cover the ridge. If you have Google Earth on your computer, you can see trimlines and moraines that mark the former extent of the glacier. To find the area formerly covered by the Furgg Glacier, just look about 4 miles southwest of Zermatt Switzerland - or alternately, about 2 miles ENE of (and a “tad” down from) the summit of the Matterhorn.



Repeat photography documents the melting of Grinnell Glacier.

   The above 4-photo sequence shows what has happened to Grinnell Glacier in Glacier National Park since 1938. Grinnell Glacier is in the lower part of the photos, and Upper Grinnell Lake has formed in the basin formerly occupied by the glacier. The long snow/icefield above Grinnell Glacier is the small Salamander Glacier. The last photo was taken earlier in the summer season than the other photos, and thus Salamander Glacier still has more seasonal now than in the other photos. (Note the lack of shadows in the last photo indicating the high sun angle that only exists in late spring / early summer.)

   The photos were taken from the top of Mount Gould. Mount Gould is a strenuous climb but can be easily accessed from the Going to the Sun Road in Glacier National Park. A larger set of the above images can be seen at: http://www.nrmsc.usgs.gov/files/norock/repeatphoto/Pairs/Grinnell/Quad_MtGould/Grinnell_Quad.pdf



   One of the more remote areas of the world that has (or at least used to have) glaciers are the high 15,000 foot mountains on the island of New Guinea.

Glaciers on the island of New Guinea in 1936.

Oblique aerial photograph looking east at several of the glaciers on Puncak Jaya in 1936. Left to right: Northwall Firn, Meren Glacier, and Carstensz Glacier. Photograph no. S.136 by J.J. Dozy.

The original of the above photograph can be seen at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/p1386h/indonesia/infig3.html
A more detailed description at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/p1386h/indonesia/indonesia.html includes an interim 1972 photograph.



The same area of New Guinea as seen via Google Earth

   The Google Earth view above shows the same area - as of 2002. Most of the glaciers are gone. The rocks are light gray as erosion from the former glaciers removed all the loose soil, and vegetation has not had enough time to become established on the bare rock.

Of note: A small portion of Freeport-McMoRan’s open pit Grasberg mine can be seen in the lower right corner. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grasberg_mine



Then and now photographs of Upsala Glacier, Argentina

   The picture above shows then and now photographs of the Upsala Glacier in Argentina. The top photograph was taken in 1928. The bottom photograph was taken in 2004. The top of the bare rock hill on the far side of the lake is nearly 700 feet above the lake level. Of interest, note the light colored trimline on the distant mountains that shows the former thickness of the glacier.

   The Upsala Glacier is one of the larger glaciers that flow out of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field - which straddles the Chile/Argentina border. Of interest, melt water that initially drains eastward off the northern end of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field eventually cuts back through the Andes Mountain Range to end up in the Pacific Ocean. (See the Rio Pascua section at http://www.durangobill.com/AncestralRivers/AncestralRiversSAm.html )



   The World Glacier Monitoring Service has a web page where they post a graph of what is happening to the world’s glaciers. Here’s what it looks like.

WGMS graph showing shrinkage of the world's glaciers.

   Not only are the world’s glaciers shrinking, the shrinkage rate has accelerated in recent years. For an updated version of the graph, please see the mass balance studies at http://www.geo.uzh.ch/microsite/wgms/




Rising Sea Level

Sea level had been stable for thousands of years up until recently.

Wikipedia graph showing historical sea level.

The graph above is from:   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Holocene_Sea_Level.png

   As the earth started to warm in the 20th century, sea level started to rise due to thermal expansion and melting glaciers. In the last couple of decades this rate of rise has increased to about 3 mm/yr. (3 meters per 1,000 years)

Here’s what radar altimetry from satellites shows.

Sea level rise as measured by satellite radar altimetery

   Sea level is not only continuing to rise, the rate of rise has accelerated beyond what had been observed before 1990. The most recent data at http://ibis.grdl.noaa.gov/SAT/SeaLevelRise/LSA_SLR_timeseries_global.php indicates this rate of sea level rise is continuing to accelerate beyond what was observed up through 2011.

   Current carbon dioxide levels are far above what was seen in the Eemian Interglacial 125,000 years ago.

Wikipedia graph of carbon dioxide for the last 400,000 years

 Graph from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Carbon_Dioxide_400kyr.png

   It will take several centuries for glacial melting and sea level rise to catch up with the current rate of thermal forcing. It seems probable that sea level will eventually rise to levels higher than what was seen in the Eemian Interglacial when sea level was some 16 to 23 feet higher than it is today.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eemian_sea  If sea level rises this much (or more) many coastal cities such as New Orleans and Miami will be completely submerged.


A chart showing the relationship between CO2, temperature, and sea level.

  The chart above was posted at http://www.johnenglander.net/t-co2-sl-420kyr-chart . The original source was Fig. 3 at http://www.columbia.edu/~mhs119/Storms/  The chart shows the historical relationship between carbon dioxide levels, temperature, and sea level.

   In the Eemian interglacial of 125,000 years ago, sea level was 20 feet or more above current levels. This is enough to turn Miami and New Orleans into fish food.

   We find a 95% probability that global sea level peaked at least 6.6m higher than today during the last interglacial; it is likely (67% probability) to have exceeded 8.0m but is unlikely (33% probability) to have exceeded 9.4 m.

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v462/n7275/full/nature08686.html

   Now take a close look at the green line at the right edge. Where is our future temperature going? Where is our future sea level going? The process will be spread over centuries, but how do you move all of the world’s big seaport cities?


A Google Earth view of Eemian beaches.

   The Google Earth view above shows a two-mile wide series of sandy shorelines in Australia that were formed when sea level was higher during the Eemian. Image that a large city were built today in this two-mile wide area. Then image what would happen if sea level were restored to Eemian levels (or higher).


   From “Relationship between sea level and climate forcing by CO2 on geological timescales” (published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America )
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/01/03/1216073110

For instance, with CO2 stabilized at 400–450 ppm (as required for the frequently quoted “acceptable warming” of 2 °C), or even at AD 2011 levels of 392 ppm, we infer a likely (68% confidence) long-term sea-level rise of more than 9 m above the present. Therefore, our results imply that to avoid significantly elevated sea level in the long term, atmospheric CO2 should be reduced to levels similar to those of preindustrial times.





Global Warming is Changing the Climate Zones for Plant Life


Plant hardiness zones as of 1990

   Global Warming / Climate Change is shifting plant hardiness zones northward. The maps above and below are Print Screen images from an animation by the Arbor Day Foundation. http://www.arborday.org/media/mapchanges.cfm

Plant hardiness zones as of 2006

   Hardiness zones provide a guide as to which plants and trees will grow in a given area. The maps show that plants that grew best in northern Alabama (Zone 7) in 1990 can now be grown across all of Tennessee and most of Kentucky. In the northern plains, the blue Zone 4 has moved north to include most of North Dakota.

   In the Rocky Mountains in Colorado and Wyoming, the blue Zone 4 is rapidly being replaced by the milder Zone 5. Cold winters used to keep Bark Beetles under control, but milder winters are allowing increasing infestations by these insects. In Mesa Verde National Park, the “Mesa” is still there but most of the “Verde” is gone. Fires and beetle attacks over the last 20 years have wiped out most of the trees; and grasslands have replaced the forests.



Resources for Research

The following organizations provide evidence that:
1) Global Warming / Climate Change is real.
2) Human activities are by far the largest causative agent.
3) Global Warming / Climate Change is a continuing, ongoing phenomenon.

NASA
“Ninety-seven percent of climate scientists agree that climate-warming trends over the past century are very likely due to human activities, and most of the leading scientific organizations worldwide have issued public statements endorsing this position.”
http://climate.nasa.gov/scientific-consensus
http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/graphs/Fig.A2.lrg.gif  (The graph)

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Climatic Data Center
http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/globalwarming.html

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
http://www.wmo.ch/pages/about/wmo50/e/world/climate_pages/global_warming_e.html

American Meteorological Society
“It is clear from extensive scientific evidence that the dominant cause of the rapid change in climate of the past half century is human-induced increases in the amount of atmospheric greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2)”
http://www.ametsoc.org/policy/2012climatechange.html

National Center for Atmospheric Research
“How do we know Earth is warming now?”
http://www.ncar.ucar.edu/research/climate/now.php

Earth System Research Laboratory - Global Monitoring Division
“Climate Forcing”
http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/about/climate.html

University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
http://www.ucar.edu/research/climate/warming.jsp

Jet Propulsion Laboratory - California Institute of Technology
“Global Climate Change” “How do we know?”
http://climate.jpl.nasa.gov/evidence/

American Geophysical Union (world's largest scientific society of Earth and space scientists)
“Human Impacts on Climate”
http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/climate_change_position.html

American Association for the Advancement of Science
“The scientific evidence is clear: global climate change caused by human activities is occurring now”
http://www.aaas.org/news/press_room/climate_change/mtg_200702/aaas_climate_statement.pdf
http://www.aaas.org/news/press_room/climate_change/

U. S. National Academy of Sciences
“Climate change is real”
http://www.nationalacademies.org/onpi/06072005.pdf

National Science Foundation
“Global Warming Greatest in Past Decade”
http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=112206

U. S. Geological  Survey
“Glacier and Landscape Change in Response to Changing Climate”
http://www.usgs.gov/global_change/glaciers/default.asp
Time lapse video: “Glacier Erasure: South Cascade Glacier in a Changing Climate”
http://wa.water.usgs.gov/projects/glacier/video.html

Geological Society of America
“The Geological Society of America (GSA) concurs . . . that global climate has warmed and that human activities (mainly greenhouse gas emissions) account for most of the warming since the middle 1900s.”
http://www.geosociety.org/positions/position10.htm

National Snow and Ice Data Center - Global Glacier Recession
“We live in a time of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations with an attendant warming of the climate.”
http://nsidc.org/glims/glaciermelt/

United Nations Environment Programme/World Glacier Monitoring Service
“Global Glacier Changes: facts and figures”
“There is mounting evidence that climate change is triggering a shrinking and thinning of many glaciers world-wide”
http://www.grid.unep.ch/glaciers/  (Introduction and links to a 26 MB WGMS report)

The United States Energy Information Administration
“Greenhouse Gases, Climate Change, and Energy”
http://www.eia.doe.gov/bookshelf/brochures/greenhouse/Chapter1.htm

U. S. Department of Defense
“As greenhouse gas emissions increase, sea levels are rising, average global temperatures are increasing, and severe weather patterns are accelerating.” “These effects are threat multipliers that will aggravate stressors abroad such as poverty, environmental degradation, political instability, and social tensions – conditions that can enable
terrorist activity and other forms of violence.”
http://www.defense.gov/pubs/2014_Quadrennial_Defense_Review.pdf   (Page 8)

Massachusetts Institute of Technology
“Report: Human activity fuels global warming”
http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2007/climate.html

California Institute of Technology
“How We Know Global Warming is Real”
“The science behind human-induced climate change”
http://www.gps.caltech.edu/~tapio/papers/skeptic_2008.pdf

Stanford University
“A large body of scientific information indicates that global climate change is unequivocal, almost certainly is caused mostly by human activities, is already causing significant harm, and as it continues, holds great risks for our future.”
https://pangea.stanford.edu/programs/outreach/climatechange/

Columbia University
“The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming”
“With higher CO2 concentrations come expectations of a stronger greenhouse effect and therefore warmer global temperatures.”
http://www.columbia.edu/~vjd1/greenhouse.htm

Atmospheric Sciences - University of Illinois - Champaign
“Evidence continues to mount that human activities are altering the Earth’s climate on a global scale.”
http://www.atmos.uiuc.edu/research/01climate.html

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
http://www.whoi.edu/main/topic/global-warming

Scripps Institution of Oceanography (University of California - San Diego)
http://scripps.ucsd.edu/img/climate_flyer.pdf

The UK’s Met Office Hadley Centre
“Climate change - the big picture”
http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/corporate/pressoffice/myths/index.html
http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climatechange/guide/

The UK’s Royal Society
“Climate change controversies: a simple guide”
http://royalsociety.org/page.asp?id=6229

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Based in Switzerland)
“Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report”
http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr_spm.pdf

Japan Meteorological Agency
“Global Warming Projection Vol.7”
http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/tcc/tcc/products/gwp/gwp7/index-e.html

The Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society
“Our climate has changed substantially.” “Global climate change and global warming are real and observable.”
http://www.amos.org.au/publications/cid/3/t/publications

Royal Society of New Zealand
“The globe is warming because of increasing greenhouse gas emissions.”
http://www.royalsociety.org.nz/Site/news/media_releases/2008/clim0708.aspx

National Geographic Magazine
http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/

Scientific American Magazine
http://www.sciam.com/topic.cfm?id=global-warming-and-climate-change

Wikipedia
“Scientific opinion on climate change is that the Earth's climate system is unequivocally warming and it is more than 90% certain that humans are causing it through activities that increase concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_opinion_on_climate_change (100+ references with links)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_change
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_effect
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_gas


Also please see “The Great Global Warming Swindle” is itself a Fraud and a Swindle
http://www.durangobill.com/Swindle_Swindle.html


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